Methodology in the Quest for Knowledge

Updated: Sep 26


Prelude

The quest for Islamic academic and spiritual scholarship is neither a path full of mystery nor is it a path full of random events. While it is a path filled with patience, sacrifice, and exertion, it is also a clear path, a curriculum as it were, that has been paved by the scholarship that has preceded us generation by generation.


There are very particular books and book types studied within a particular order and particular method that lead the disciple of knowledge from the early stages of ignorance to the later enlightened stages of independent scholarship and free thought. Some of these books are memorized whilst others are studied intently, all with a proficient teacher.


The general idea is that basal knowledge is studied before advanced knowledge, and primers are studied in preparation to consume the encyclopedic works. Along with this, one will often find the self gradually traveling backward into the past, beginning with the works of more recent scholarship into the most ancient works of Islam dating back to the earliest of generations.


The function of the works that are memorized, often called mutoon, is to serve as a mental index of key concepts and evidences in order to remind you of specific details in academic issues. With repetition of these works, you will also find the depth and breadth of your understanding growing. One should also be mindful that the shortest and most effective path to one's goals in knowledge is the one that should be taken.


We must also understand, without doubt, that the source of all knowledge in every field is the Quran, both academically and spiritually. We find it being the regret of some scholars toward the end of their lives not having dedicated more time to the Quran and its sciences, even in exchange for their fields of expertise.


It is imperative that the disciple of knowledge has dedication to completing memorization and understanding of the Quran. The only debate is whether the disciple of knowledge should first solely memorize the Quran until completion or continue to memorize the Quran while studying other fields of knowledge. At the end of this debate, each individual must decide which one of the two is best for the individual. The most important thing is for the Quran to be completely memorized in the end or as close as one can get to that goal.


Selecting a Teacher


Traditionally, one should seek out the most knowledgeable and pious teacher of the region then those of lesser caliber until the knowledge of that region has been exhausted before traveling to other lands in the quest for knowledge.


While this is a good general guideline to abide by, we should add to this to seek out those teachers you personally benefit from the most in your individual understanding and piety, regardless of how famous, or not, the teacher happens to be.


The Method


Subsequently, below is a listing of the curriculum scholarship has etched along with light background and insight to some of these works for context; albeit, some of these works may differ from region to region or even teacher to teacher premised upon preference, so it is often best to request of your teacher the best works for you to study at your level and allow the teacher to teach you those works.


All of the below mentioned works should be studied with a proficient teacher to the extent this is possible. If you do not have access to such a teacher, then recordings of proficient teachers should be utilized. If this is also not feasible, then you should study the work independently whilst posing questions to proficient teachers in your trouble areas of understanding.


Epistemology [Etiquette of the Disciple of Knowledge]


1. Hilyatu Taalibil 'Ilm of Bakr Abu Zaid

2. Tadhkirat-us-Saami wal Mutakallim of Ibn Jamaa'ah

3. Jaami' Bayaan al-Ilm wa Fadlih of Ibn Abdul Barr


These works are to be read whilst taking note of and highlighting key concepts and quotations.


There may not be a work authored on this topic, within recent contemporary scholarship, more profound than Hilyatu Taalibil 'Ilm. Ibn 'Uthaymeen also has an excellent commentary on this work.


Tadhkirat-us-Saami' wal Mutakallim was so pertinent to Hammaad al-Ansaaree that he would dedicate a portion of his time to reading a section of this work daily.


As for Jaami Bayaan al-Ilm wa Fadlih of Ibn Abdul Barr, suffice it to say that this is the quintessential work on this topic.


Areas covered within epistemology span from defining knowledge to formal training within fields of knowledge to matters of manners and character to the inner and outer self, higher and lower self, to how the disciple of knowledge should interact with each character type within the societies we live in, socially, intellectually, and academically.


Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah [Divinity in Servitude]


1. Thalaathat-ul-Usool

2. al-Qawaa'id al-Arba'

3. Kashf-ush-Shubuhaat

4. Kitaab at-Tawheed


These works are to be memorized. All of them have been authored by Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab. It is possible to simply study Kashf-ush-Shubuhaat without memorization whilst being keenly astute of the arguments being made along with the method of debate. Thalaathat-ul-Usool is more important than al-Qawaa'id al-Arba', and if only one of these four works is to be chosen for memorization, then Kitaab at-Tawheed is the best choice.


The primary commentary for Thalaathat-ul-Usool is Haashiyah Thalathat-il-Usool of Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Qaasim and thereafter the commentary of Ibn 'Uthaymeen.


The most referenced commentary for Kitaab at-Tawheed is Fath-ul-Majeed of Abdur-Rahmaan Aali ash-Shaykh, and for good reason. Further commentaries not to be ignored are Tayseer-ul-Azeez al-Hameed of Sulaymaan Aali ash-Shaykh and al-Qawl-ul-Mufeed of Ibn 'Uthaymeen.


Interestingly, Fath-ul-Majeed is the completion and enhancement of the author's cousin's unfinished work Tayseer-ul-Azeez al-Hameed, as he passed before reaching the age of thirty five during events and for reasons that have been recorded in history. Both of them are grandchildren of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab.


Honorable Mentions


Kitaab-ul-Eemaan, Usool as-Sittah, and Fadl-ul-Islam, also all authored by Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhaab.


Kitaab-ul-Eemaan explores the evidences for the pillars of Eemaan, primarily Hadeeth, before ending this work with title headings and evidences surrounding the decorum of the disciple of knowledge. Ibn Baaz recommends memorizing it.


Tawheed al-Asmaa was Sifaat [Divinity in Name and Quality] and Conventional Theology


1. al-'Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah

2. al-'Aqeedah al-Hamawiyyah

3. al-'Aqeedah at-Tadrumiyyah

4. al-'Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah


The first three have been authored by Ibn Taymiyyah while the latter by at-Tahaawee. al-Waasitiyyah and at-Tahaawiyyah are often recommended for memorization. As one matriculates through these works one graduates through the most important areas of conventional theology with emphasis upon the Names and Qualities of Allah along with education on those who have stepped away from more orthodox beliefs and why. Each one of these works enters into more detail on this topic than the previous.


The primary commentary for al-'Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah is the explanation of Muhammad Khaleel Harraas, although in more recent times many have begun to prefer the explanation of Ibn 'Uthaymeen.


The most frequented commentary for al-'Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah is that of Ibn Abil 'Izz al-Hanafee.


Honorable Mentions


Lum'at-ul-I'tiqaad of Ibn Qudaamah and as-Safaareeniyyah of Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Safaareenee.


Some cite light theological challenges within these two works, yet the overall academic value they retain outweighs that.


Some recommend memorizing these works, however, it is sufficient to study them with a proficient teacher if one has the opportunity. Some recommend Lum'at-ul-I'tiqaad being studied before al-'Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah and as-Safaariniyyah being studied after al-'Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah.


From here one is qualified to perform in depth study and research in the elder encyclopedic works in the field such as but not limited to:


as-Sunnah of al-Khallaal, as-Sunnah of ash-Shaybaanee, Sharh Usool al-I'tiqaad Ahlis Sunnah wal Jamaa'ah of al-Laalikaaee, ash-Sharee'ah of al-Aajurree, and al-Ibaanah of Ibn Battah.


Arabic Syntax and Morphology


1. al-Aajuroomiyyah

2. Mulhat-ul-I'raab

3. Qatr-un-Nadaa

4. Alfiyyah Ibn Maalik


The minimum to be memorized here is al-Aajuroomiyyah and Alfiyyah Ibn Maalik. If one skips Mulhat-ul-I'raab in entirety, that is possible. As for Qatr-un-Nadaa, then it should minimally be studied. All this being said if one had to choose only one text to memorize, then Alfiyyah Ibn Maalik would suffice.


The primary commentary for al-Aajuroomiyyah is Tuhfat-us-Saniyyah of Muhammad Muhy-ud-Deen 'Abdul-Hameed, although more recently many have begun to give preference to the commentary of Ibn 'Uthaymeen.


The primary commentary for Qatr-un-Nadaa is that of Ibn Hishaam al-Ansaaree.


Alfiyyah Ibn Maalik combines well between the fields of grammar and morphology, all within one thousand lines of beautiful poetry to facilitate memorization.


The primary commentary for Alfiyyah Ibn Maalik is the commentary of Ibn 'Aqeel. The commentary of Ibn 'Uthaymeen is often mentioned as well but may not quite be a replacement for the efforts of Ibn 'Aqeel.


Honrable Mentions


Shadhaa al-'Urf and Lamiyyat-ul-Af'aal


These works have a focus on morphology, and if one is going to memorize one of the two of them, the choice would be Lamiyyat-ul-Af'aal.


Arabic Dictionaries


Arabic to English Dictionaries


1. Hans Wehr Dictionary

2. Arabic-English Lexicon of Edward William Lane


While the Hans Wehr Dictionary was originally intended to empower orientalists during the Second World War forward in their quest to understand, and possibly combat, Islam, it has become an illuminating tool for English speaking academics, as it includes Arabic root words, transliteration with phonetics, morphology of the root word defined within the ten most common scales, as well as common Arabic idioms using said word.


If this seems profound, then enter the Arabic-English Lexicon. While the Hans Wehr stands in one volume the Arabic-English Lexicon stands in eight. It is everything the Hans Wehr Dictionary is and more; more detail, includes poetry, and even passages from great luminaries such as ash-Shaafi'ee.


Arabic to Arabic Dictionaries


1. Mukhtaar as-Sihaah of ar-Raazee

2. al-Qaamoos al-Muheet of Fayroozaabaadee

3. Lisaan al-Arab of Ibn Manthoor


Mukhtasar as-Sihaah is an abridged dictionary holding only a few hundred pages. It is excellent for beginners and also as a quick reference.


al-Qaamoos al-Muheet is the most frequented dictionary. Fayroozaabaadee, one of the teachers of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalaanee, has put together such a phenomenal, historical work; clear, succinct, yet not lacking detail. Bakr Abu Zaid would actually read this work straight through and would recommend the same, yet how could this not be when his teacher, the luminary, Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shinqeetee, would do the same; both were profound in their lingual capabilities.


Lisaan al-Arab is the quintessential work in this field. It is the primary source. One will do well to spend much time with this work as needed.


Tajweed [Elocution]


1. Tuhfat-ul-Atfaal

2. al-Jazariyyah


These two will suffice the one not specializing in Quranic recitation with its modes. If one is aiming on becoming a specialist in this field, your teacher will direct you to what is beyond this frontier.


'Uloom al-Quran [Hermeneutics]


1. Usool at-Tafseer of Ibn Taymiyyah

2. al-Itqaan of as-Suyootee

3. al-Burhaan of az-Zurkashee


These works are to be studied with notes, highlighting key points and quotations, and are not necessarily to be memorized.


'Uloom al-Quran provides the disciple of knowledge with broad education concerning the Quran and provides the tools to understand and perform Tafseer of the Quran premised upon the proper foundations and principles.


What is a verse, how many words are in the Quran, how many letters? What verses were revealed during the day, during the night, while sleeping even? During the summer or winter? What is the first and last verse to have been revealed? What exactly is revelation and how does it occur? Who are the scribes and memorizers of the Quran from the companions? What is the history of its compilation? Are the names of the chapters of the Quran and the order of those chapters premised upon revelation or scholarly deduction from the companions? How do varying modes of recitation impact law? How does all of the aforementioned impact theology and law? All of these topics and more are explored within 'Uloom al-Quran.


Tafseer [Exegesis]


1. Tafseer al-Jalalayn or Tafseer as-Sa'dee or Zubdat-ut-Tafseer or Tawfeeq-ur-Rahmaan

2. Mukhtasar Tafseer Ibn Katheer of ar-Rafa'ee or Muhammad Musa Nasr

3. Tafseer Ibn Katheer

4. Tafseer at-Tabaree


Most scholarship would advise these books of Tafseer to be read by the disciple of knowledge independently whilst posing questions to proficient teachers on problem areas. It is also not that common to find lessons where works of Tafseer are consistently being taught with completion. Of these few lessons that are taught, they are often at the level of Jalaalayn or its equivalent forward to the level of Ibn Katheer but rarely anything above this level.


Tafseer al-Jalaalayn is an abridged Tafseer authored by two Jalaal ad-Deens, Jalaal ad-Deen al-Mahallee and Jalaal ad-Deen as-Suyootee. It is originally the work of al-Mahallee, however, he passed before completing it, only completing from Israa to Nass and some of al-Baqarah. as-Suyootee came behind him completing from Baqarah to Kahf. Its words are similar in the number to that of the Quran. The value in this work is its focus on Quranic vocabulary, the themes of chapters, and reasons for revelation of verses and chapters, all while being succinct. A detractor is that there is some Ta'weel (interpretation) of Allah's qualities within this work.


The value of Tafseer as-Sa'dee is that it is abridged, its language and level is suitable for the novice as well as the person of knowledge, and it is orthodox in its theological presentation. Along with this, the author provides you the summary of the major works of Tafseer all truncated into a singular statement that also matches the view of the author.


Zubdat-ut-Tafseer is Muhammad Sulaymaan al-Ashqar's summary of Fath-ul-Qadeer condensed to one volume for brevity. It presents suitable narrations in support of a given exegesis and also offers some interesting alternatives in understanding the Quran.


Tafseer Ibn Katheer is the most frequently referenced exegesis in the world today. It is quite comprehensive in its inclusion of law opinions, reasons for revelation, and views of the companions, all whilst being premised upon the narrations in approach to exegesis and maintaining orthodox theology. There is not much this exegesis leaves unturned.


Tafser at-Tabaree is the quintessential work in this field. Almost all major works after it quote it or rely upon it in some way. It is the broadest and most detailed work in the field we have to date. The author includes all fields of knowledge to come to conclusion on the meaning of a verse.


Honorable Mentions


al-Qurtubee, al-Baghawee, Adwaa' al-Bayaan, Fath-ul-Qadeer.


al-Qurtubee's approach to exegesis is one of law and verdicts before any other approach. While its focus is the law that can extracted from the verses, it should also be noted that the author is Maalikee in approach to law and this becomes evident throughout his work.


Adwaa' al-Bayaan of Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shinqeetee is an effort by the author to explain the entire of the Quran with the Quran, which he achieves with wide success. There is also much emphasis upon Usool al-Fiqh (Legal Theory) within this work.


Mustalah al-Hadeeth [Philology of Hadith Literature]


1. al-Bayqooniyyah

2. Nukhabat-ul-Fikr

3. al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth

4. Tadreeb ar-Raawee

5. Alfiyyah of al-'Iraaqee or as-Suyootee


al-Bayqooniyyah, Nukhabat-ul-Fikr, and one of the two Alfiyyah's are memorized. It is possible to suffice with memorizing Nukhbat-ul-Fikr, however, one planning on specializing in the field will also need to memorize one of the two Alfiyyah's or be exceedingly familiar with one of them.


al-Bayqooniyyah contains thirty four verses of poetry and serves as an excellent entry to one not having any previous exposure to the field, however, the topics covered and depth of those topics are limited.


Nukhabat-ul-Fikr serves as a sufficient foundation in the field in order to be familiar with the language and some of the functions of those active within this field. This work has been authored by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalaanee and he has also authored the premier commentary to this work entitled Nuzhat-un-Nathar.


al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth is to be studied whilst being keen to record relevant definitions, dates, numbers, historical points, and concepts. It was not uncommon for the students of Muhammad ibn Ibraheem Aali ash-Shaykh to memorize this work, and Ibn Baaz was one who did so. This work has been authored by Ahmad Shaakir and is his commentary on Ibn Katheer's Ikhtisaar Uloom al-Hadeeth.


Tadreeb ar-Raawee of as-Suyootee is his commentary on an-Nawawee's Taqreeb. This work provides more depth and detail than the previous levels.


The Alfiyyah of al-'Iraaqee is the premier work memorized by those working to become experts in the field. Containing one thousand verses of poetry on the topic, the author opted to utilize very particular and often sophisticated language to include as many academic issues as possible within these one thousand verses. A proficient teacher is definitely recommended to work through what the author offers. The suggested commentary for this work is Fath-ul-Mugheeth of as-Sakhaawee. Shaykh 'Abdul-Kareem al-Khudayr also has a healthy commentary on this work.


The Alfiyyah of as-Suyootee is premised upon the Alfiyyah of his predecessor, al-'Iraaqee. His language being less sophisticated and more self- explanatory, this is the choice of most who opt not to memorize the Alfiyyah of al-'Iraaqee. Ahmad Shaakir has a light commentary on this work. Perhaps the commentaries of Shaykh 'Abdul-Muhsin al-Abbaad and Shaykh Muhammad ibn Aadam al-Ethiyoobee are amongst the best commentaries we have available today, both of whom have memorized this work.


All of these works and those similar to them are renditions, summaries, commentaries, or poetic forms that root back to the source work within this field known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Salaah. Almost every book in the field after it returns back to it in some form.


Any of the many sub-fields within this field, you will encounter them and their works as you matriculate through the above suggested works.


It should also be understood that the primary goal of this field is to preserve Hadith traditions and distinguish between which of these traditions are acceptable or unacceptable.


Hadeeth [Hadeeth Literature]


1. al-Arba'oon an-Nawawiyah

2. Umdat-ul-Ahkaam

3. Bulugh al-Maraam

4. Riyaadh as-Saaliheen


an-Nawawee had been sitting in the circles of Ibn Salaah in which the goal was to compile those Hadeeth that the whole of the religion revolves around them. an-Nawawee carried twenty six of the Hadeeth from these sittings and added an additional sixteen. This has become the forty two Hadeeth that we call al-Arba'oon an-Nawawiyyah. Ibn Rajab came later an added a further eight Hadeeth for a grand total of fifty Hadeeth.


The idea is that one should never find oneself in any position in life except that one of these Hadeeth can be applied to that life circumstance. This will empower the individual to the extent when one is questioned on the Day of Resurrection, the response can be, "I performed this action because of this Hadeeth from Your Messenger, my Lord." Further, it is rare to come across a sermon or lecture except that these Hadeeth are referenced. It is even considered inappropriate for the disciple of knowledge to be asked about one of these Hadeeth and not be able to provide a basic commentary of the Hadeeth.


The author himself has a splendid commentary on his work. Thereafter there is the commentary of Ibn Daqeeq al-'Eid, even if there is a debate on whether this commentary is attributed to Ibn Daqeeq al-'Eid, and, finally, there is the premier commentary of this work, Jaami' al-'Uloom wal Hikam of Ibn Rajab. Within it, you will find the breath of the Salaf, the ancients. He has also striven to explain the Sunnah with Sunnah. It is a very spiritually touching work.


Umdat-ul-Ahkaam of 'Abdul-Ghanee al-Maqdasee enters the disciple of knowledge into the arena of what is called Ahaadeeth al-Ahkaam (Hadeeth of Law). This work covers the most frequented topics of law premised upon the Hadeeth that are agreed upon by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, within most of them, totaling in the range of four hundred and twenty nine Hadeeth.


The main commentaries referenced for this work are Tayseer-ul-'Allaam of 'Abdullah al-Bassaam and Ihkaam-ul-Ahkaam of Ibn Daqeeq al-'Eid.


Tayseer-ul-'Allaam offers a comparative Fiqh approach, separates the issues into categories, definitions, overviews, and summaries, along with Usool al-Fiqh discussions.


Ihkaam-ul-Ahkaam is a more dense commentary and often offers an Usool al-Fiqh approach to discussing the academic issues of law.


Bulugh al-Maraam of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalaanee also focuses on Ahaadeeth al-Ahkaam (Hadeeth of Law) totaling one thousand three hundred and fifty eight Hadeeth depending upon the numbering system utilized. His goal is to cite the most renowned Hadeeth that are discussed within each standard academic issue of law regardless of the opinion held or approach to law (Madhab), even though he is a Shaafi'ee scholar. This work also offers value to the disciple of knowledge in exposure to Hadeeth as a field of study, as the author cites Hadeeth references along with his grading of the Hadeeth in the language of Hadeeth specialists and does not limit himself to the six canonical books. He concludes this work with a comprehensive compilation of Hadeeth focusing on etiquette, spirituality, supplication, and character. The premier commentary of this work is Subulus Salaam of as-San'aanee whilst some more recently encourage Tawdeeh-ul-Ahkaam of 'Abdullah al-Bassaam.


Riyaadh as-Saaliheen of an-Nawawee is a source work in etiquette, spirituality, supplication, and character. When absorbed and embodied properly, it can be a magnificent assistant in mastery over the higher and lower self.


al-Arba'oon an-Nawawiyah must be memorized. It is possible to forego Umdat-ul-Ahkaam in memorization for Bulugh al-Maraam since most of the Hadeeth of Umdat-ul-Ahkaam are included within Bulugh al-Maraam. Riyaadh as-Saaliheen is encouraged to be memorized after Bulugh al-Maraam.


Honorable Mentions


Muntaqaa al-Akhbaar of Abul Barakaat Majd-ud-Deen ibn Taymiyyah, the grandfather of the renowned Ibn Taymiyyah, along with its explanation Nayl-ul-Awtaar of ash-Shawkaanee.


Muntaqaa al-Akhbaar is the largest source of Ahaadeeth al-Ahkaam (Hadeeth of Law) within the Hanbalee approach to law. It has been said whoever memorizes it will never be in need of any other evidence in Fiqh.


Nayl-ul-Awtaar is the premier explanation of Muntaqaa al-Akhbaar. He provides a comparative Fiqh approach to these academic issues of law whilst leaning heavily upon the field of Usool al-Fiqh. It is a phenomenal work, however, one should always look to the source of each Madhab for accuracy when undergoing comparative Fiqh.


From here forward, you begin continued, cycled reading of the six canonical books of Hadeeth: al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee, an-Nasaa'ee, and Ibn Majah.


The premier commentary for Saheeh al-Bukhaaree is Fath-ul-Baaree of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalaanee and the premier commentary for Saheeh Muslim is that of an-Nawawee. 'Awn al-Ma'bood of al-'Atheem Aabaadee is the primary commentary for Sunan Abee Dawood, and Tuhfat-ul-Ahwadhee of al-Mubaarakfooree is the premier commentary for the Jaami' of at-Tirmidhee. As for the Sunan of an-Nasaa'ee and the Sunan of Ibn Maajah, then more recently Shaykh Muhammad ibn Aadam al-Ethiyoobee has extensive commentary on these two. Shaykh 'Abdul-Muhsin al-'Abbaad spent twenty six years explaining these six canonical works and his efforts have been documented.


Once the disciple of knowledge reaches this point, some dedicate one to two hours per day of reading the canonical books, some strive for completion every six months, others once per year, and still others once in a lifetime.


Usool al-Fiqh [Legal Theory]


1. al-Waraqaat of al-Juwaynee or al-Usool min 'Ilm al-Usool of Ibn 'Uthaymeen

2. Rawdat-un-Naathir of Ibn Qudaamah

3. Mukhtasar at-Tahreer or Jam' al-Jawaami'


While al-Juwaynee, the Imam of the Haramayn, is a premier Shaafi'ee scholar, his al-Waraqaat is Madhab neutral enough and marvelous enough that it is the starting point in Usool al-Fiqh amongst all Madhabs. Most recently, some within the Hanbalee Madhab have begun to show favor to al-Usool min 'Ilm al-Usool of Ibn 'Uthaymeen. Ibn 'Uthaymeen has also authored a commentary to his work. The commentaries of al-Mahallee and Shaykh 'Abdullah al-Fawzaan are amongst the best commentaries of al-Waraqaat to date.


al-Waraqaat is to be memorized whilst al-Usool min 'Ilm al-Usool is to be studied with notes and highlights of key points. Rawdat-un-Naathir deepens ones understanding of Usool al-Fiqh at the intermediate level whilst Mukhtasar at-Tahreer and Jam' al-Jawaami' operate at the advanced levels within the field.


al-Qawaa'id al-Fiqhiyyah [Law Maxims]


1. Manthoomah al-Qawaa'id al-Fiqhiyyah of as-Sa'dee

2. Qawaa'id Ibn Rajab


Usool al-Fiqh broadly and generally approaches the questions of what is an evidence and how can said evidence be utilized to prove a particular point and by whom; whilst al-Qawaa'id al-Fiqhiyyah are the principles in law utilized to understand and prove specific academic issues of law.


In essence, accurate Usool al-Fiqh is the understanding of the Salaf, the ancients, in methodology, and allows the disciple of knowledge to continue to navigate both past and modern issues when a clear, direct evidence on an issue is not present.


Fiqh [Law]


1. Zaad al-Mustaqni' or Daleel at-Taalib or Umdat-ul-Fiqh or Akhsar al-Mukhtasaraat or Manhaj as-Saalikeen

2. al-Muqni'

3. al-Kaafee

4. al-Mughnee


Memorizing one text suffices most disciples of knowledge in the field of Fiqh. Akhsar al-Mukhtasaraat contains more academic issues of law than Umdat-ul-Fiqh, and Daleel at-Taalib of al-Mar'ee as well as Zaad al-Mustaqni' of al-Hajaawee contain more academic issues of law than Akhsar al-Mukhtasaraat.


Zaad al-Mustaqni' contains approximately three thousand academic issues of law whilst Daleel at-Taalib contains approximately twenty four hundred, yet with commentary and a proficient teacher the academic issues of law from either become equal.


Daleel at-Taalib is the predecessor to Zaad al-Mustaqni', often praised for its ease of language and intelligent arrangement along with pragmatic categorizations. Yet over the past century Zaad al-Mustaqni' has taken the forefront amongst scholarship, being studied, memorized, taught, and serviced moreso. The primary commentary for Daleel at-Taalib is Manaar as-Sabeel of Ibn Duwayyaan whilst the primary explanation of Zaad al-Mustaqni' is ar-Rawd al-Murbi' of al-Buhootee, although as of late many have begun to refer to al-Mumti' of Ibn 'Uthaymeen.


al-Muqni' begins exploring the evidences of the Madhab whilst al-Kaafee explores varying views within the Madhab along with varying narrations of Ahmad. Al-Mughnee graduates to comparative Fiqh along with the independent views of the author and is one of the premier works in the Madhab. These three works have been authored by Ibn Qudaamah.


Within the Hanbalee Madhab, one must ultimately land upon Muntahaa al-Iraadaat of Ibn Najjaar, al-Iqnaa' of al-Hajaawee, and at-Tanqeeh of al-Mardaawee. When all three agree, it is considered the standard (mu'tamad) of the Madhab. If all three do not agree, then the two that agree are considered the standard (mu'tamad) of the Madhab. If all three differ, then Muntahaa is considered the standard (mu'tamad) of the Madhab.


Two excellent works concerning the history and structure of the Hanbalee approach to law are al-Madkhal al-Mufassal li Madhab al-Imam Ahmad of Bakr Abu Zayd and Madaarij at-Tafaqquh al-Hanbalee of Shaykh Ahmad ibn Naasir al-Qu'aymee.


The aforementioned regarding Usool al-Fiqh and Fiqh all revolve around that of the Hanbalee Madhab. If your Madhab differs, please defer to the teachers of your region or those you have access to. Often utilized as primers, there is al-Qadooree in the Hanafee Madhab, Mukhtasar Khalil in the Maalikee Madhab, and Abu Shujaa' in the Shafi'ee Madhab.


In comparative Fiqh, Bidaayat-ul-Mujtahid of Ibn Rushd suffices many.


Faraa'id [Inheritance Law]


1. ar-Rahbiyyah


This work is amenable to all four approaches to law within the field of inheritance. It is to be memorized. Some suggest al-Burhaan, however, the benefit of ar-Rahbiyyah appears greater.


Seerah [Prophetic Biography]

1. al-Urjoozah al-Mi'iyyah of Ibn Abil 'Izz al-Hanafee

2. Mukhtasar as-Seerah of Muhammad ibn Abdul-Wahhab

2. Seerah of Ibn Hishaam

3. Zaad al-Ma'aad of Ibn al-Qayyim


al-Urjoozah al-Mi'iyyah is one hundred verses of poetry covering the entire life of the Prophet and can be memorized if one so chooses. Shaykh 'Abdur-Razzaaq al-Badar has an excellent commentary on this work. It is said that Ibn Abil 'Izz was summarizing the work of his teacher, Ibn Katheer, al-Fusool fee Seerat-ir-Rasool.


Mukhtasar as-Seerah is an abridgement of the Seerah of Ibn Hishaam. The Seerah of Ibn Hishaam is the primary source work in this field for many. Within this work, he is summarizing and improving the Seerah of Ibn Ishaaq, which is the ultimate source work in Seerah for most historians. Unfortunately, the Seerah of Ibn Ishaaq has been lost, and all we have remaining is Ibn Hishaam's summary, although recently a quarter of it has been found.


Zaad al-Ma'aad is unique in that the author works to extrapolate academic points of Fiqh directly from the Seerah itself. Even more interesting, the author penned this entire work from memory, with sources cited, whilst traveling by caravan to Makkah for Hajj merely to pass the time.


History


1. al-Bidaayah wan Nihaayah of Ibn Katheer

2. Taareekh of Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree

3. Siyaru A'laam an-Nubalaa of adh-Dhahabee


Within al-Bidaayah wan Nihaayah, the author works to record history from the beginning of creation to the last day within our current existence. He also records major historic events up to his life time. The author passes in 774 Anno Hegirae.


Within Siyaru A'laam an-Nubalaa, the author seeks to record the history of influential personalities in Islamic history, be they righteous or otherwise, up to his lifetime. The author passes in 748 Anno Hegirae.


Epilogue


So after the aforementioned, know that knowledge can be divided into two broad categories with regard to quality, 'Ilm al-Ghaayah and 'Ilm al-Aalah, Source Knowledge and Tertiary Knowledge. Source Knowledge is the main knowledge we are striving to obtain whilst Tertiary Knowledge assists us in gaining Source Knowledge. Understanding this, Tertiary Knowledge is a means to an end whilst Source Knowledge is the end itself.


Source Knowledge Includes


1. Tawheed

2. Tafseer

3. Fiqh


Some include Hadeeth as a fourth whilst others view the field of Hadeeth to fall within the category of Fiqh.


Tertiary Knowledge includes but is not limited to the Arabic language along with its twelve sub-fields, Uloom al-Quran, Uloom al-Hadeeth along with its many sub-fields such as Mustalah, Takhreej, 'Ilm ar-Rijaal, 'Ilal, and Fiqh-us-Sunnah, and Usool al-Fiqh along with its sub-fields such as al-Qawaa'id al-Fiqhiyyah and Maqaasid ash-Sharee'ah.


Something to walk away with on this point, Tertiary Knowledge is often theoretical knowledge, so to keep it from remaining abstract concepts it is often best learned through illustrations, exercises, and practice. Many are often confused by these fields when they may not be so complex merely because one needs to actually see how a given field works real time.


Parting Words


In closing, what you have before you is a map, so set your destination and chart your course! Aim for the moon, for at least if you miss your goal you will still be amongst the stars!


Kenneth "Aqil" Ingram II

Safar 4, 1442 Anno Hegirae

September 21, 2020 Anno Domini

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