Updated: Jun 10, 2020
Understanding the lineage of the Prophets aids us in understanding what a Prophet is and what a Prophet is not. Being conscious of the lineage of the Prophets gifts us in understanding where Prophethood begins, where it ends, and that it is one bloodline upon one faith.
A Prophet is a person who receives revelation and is sent to a people who are in alignment with the message, regardless of whether a book is revealed to this person or not; whilst a Messenger is a person who receives revelation and is sent to a people who are in opposition to the message, regardless of whether a book is revealed to this person or not.
Allah, the Glorious, has stated,
"And when Allah took the covenant of the Prophets, 'Whatever I give you of the Scripture and wisdom and then there comes to you a messenger confirming what is with you, you must believe in him and support him.' He said, 'Have you acknowledged and taken upon My covenant?' They said, 'We have affirmed it.' He said, 'Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.'"
And, He, the Mighty has said,
"And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger proclaiming, 'Worship Allah and avoid worshiping the creation.'"
[Chapter an-Nahl (16):36]
"The Prophets are paternal brothers. Their mothers differ yet their religion is one."
Collected by al-Bukhari  and Muslim .
These verses and Prophetic tradition intimate the theology and spirituality of the Prophets has always been of one faith. People have changed religion but religion has never changed. This holds true even if Allah has appropriated laws to the needs of the people according to place, time, culture, and situational need.
Allah, the Omniscient, said:
"To each of you We have prescribed a law and a methodology."
[Chapter al- Maaidah (5):48]
If we examine the origin and dissemination of humanity as it relates to the Prophets, then we must say Adam is the first human, first Prophet, and first Prophet whom Allah spoke to directly without intermediary, thereafter doing the same with Moses and Muhammad respectively.
After the destruction of humanity with the flooding during Noah's era, humanity's lineage restarts with Noah and traces back to him from this point forward in Allah's honor of his service and sacrifice.
Further, all Prophets after Abraham then collapse into his bloodline in Allah's honor of his service and sacrifice.
Muhammad's bloodline is agreed upon to Adnaan and is agreed in that it culminates at Ishmael the son of Abraham, yet scholarship differs on the exact lineage between Adnaan and Ishmael, and in keeping with academic honesty, scholarship bears strong dependence upon Israelite reports from Abraham to Adam.
The lineage as reported between Abraham and Adam should be understood as a general guideline as to what can be connected within this genealogy and not a full report of all generations in between Abraham and Adam, as it may very well be non-plausible to reproduce this generation for generation the further we traverse backward into history due to the lack of existence in or access to reliable written and oral record the earlier we move toward the origin of humanity.
Below please find the geneology of Muhammad to Adam as collected by Abdul Ghani al-Maqdasi in his "ad-Durrah al-Madiyyah fee as-Seerah an- Nabawiyyah", as he reports on Muhammad b. Ishaaq b. Yasaar al-Madani. The abbreviation b. is a reference to the term ibn and translates as son, even if by way of being a grandson or greater.
He is Abul Qasim Muhammad b. Abdullah b. Abdul Muttalab b. Haashim b. Abdu Manaaf b. Qusay b. Kilaab b. Murrah b. Ka'b b. Lu'ay b. Ghaalib b. Fihr b. Maalik b. an-Nadr b. Kinaanah b. Khuzaymah b. Mudrikah b. Ilyaas b. Mudar b. Nazaar b. Ma'ad b. b. 'Adnaan b. Udad b. al-Muqawwim b. Naahoor b. Tayrah b. Ya'rub b. Yashjub b. Naabit b. Ishmael b. Abraham b. Taarih [Azur] b. Naahoor b. Saaroo' b. Raa'oo b. Faalikh b. 'Aybar b. Shaalikh b. Arfakhshad b. Saam b. Noah b. Laamak b. Muttooshalkh b. Ukhnookh [Enoch] b. Yazeed b. Muleel b. Qaynan b. Yaanish b. Seth b. Adam.
One may pose the question, what is the benefit of knowing all this. Muhammad is a Prophet and has the bloodline of the Prophets. This lends support to the legitimacy and historicity of his prophethood.
We may also glean from this the importance of preserving our individual genealogies and cultures to the extent we are able whilst also respecting and being intrigued by the genealogies and cultures of others, as we all share in a common lineage through our Prophets. We can concentrate upon this as an impetus for unity within the species of humanity, and, hopefully, one day, becoming a Type II civilization.
We also learn from the aforementioned, while it is true that Allah distributes His blessings however He pleases out of His favor, these blessings will vary from person to person and people to people. It is also true that the excellence from one individual to another is premised upon the height of spiritual development one reaches, just as the Prophets are the best of the creation due to the heights of their spiritual development.
This is impressed by the eternal statements of Allah and the succeeding laconical words of His Messenger.
"O humanity, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most God-conscious of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted."
[Chapter al-Hujuraat (49):13]
"Learn of your genealogy what will allow you to effectuate connection to the wombs that bore you, for enjoining the family ties is love of family, increase in wealth, and extension of lifespan."
Collected by at-Tirmidhi .
"And it remained as a lasting word throughout his progeny."
[Chapter az-Zukhruf (43):28]
Kenneth "Aqil" Ingram II
Shawwal 14, 1441 A.H.
June 6, 2020 A.D.