After contemplation and within Chapter al-Fātihah we find:
A rebuttal of the polytheists in His statement, the Exalted,
"All praise belongs to Allāh, Lord of all that exists. The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. The Owner of the Day of Resurrection."
This is since they praise other than Him whilst they anticipate mercy from them.
A rebuttal of the innovators in His statement, the Exalted,
"Guide us to the straight path"
Since they have innovated methodologies from themselves to the exclusion of following His Messenger ﷺ.
A rebuttal of the atheists in His statement,
"Lord of all that Exists."
He is the deity of all that exists and their cultivator. He bestows mercy upon them, the universe does not do this. He is the owner of the Day of Resurrection, so He is the One Who revives life in the hereafter.
A rebuttal of the Magians in His statement,
"Lord of all that exists"
Since they say His Lordship does not encompass the animals.
A rebuttal of those who deny Allāh's knowledge extending to detailed technicalities (id est of individuals and events) in His statement,
"All praise belongs to Allah."
This is since praise does not exist except for one who is a savant, whose knowledge extends to both the generalities and the particulars of affairs.
A rebuttal of those who deny prophet-hood and a rebuttal of the Rāfiḍah in His statement,
"Those whom you have bestowed Your grace upon them"
Since the Companions of Muhammad ﷺ knew the truth and followed it.
A rebuttal of the Qadariyyah and the Mu‘tazilah in His statement,
"And in You alone do we seek aid."
The servant is in need of assistance since he acts and does so of his own volition.
Kenneth "Aqil" Ingram II
Sha'ban 28, 1442 Anno Hegirae
April 10, 2021 Anno Domini